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[17], Tecun Uman was declared a National Hero of Guatemala on March 22, 1960 and is celebrated annually on February 20 for the bravery and dignity he demonstrated in opposition to the Spanish Conquistadors. Four decades later, his daughter Leonor arranged for his remains to be returned to Guatemala. [13], It is believed that "Tecun Uman" was more than likely not the ruler's name at all but may have functioned as a sort of title. He was engaged (1523-24) in the conquest of Guatemala, of which he was subsequently appointed governor by Charles V. In 1534 he attempted to bring the province of Quito under his power, but had to content himself with the exaction of a pecuniary indemnity for the expenses of the expedition. Alvarado accompanied Hernán Cortés in the conquest of Mexico (1519–21). Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras (born Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain, ca. Tecun Uman was declared Guatemala's official national hero on March 22, 1960 and is commemorated on February 20, the popular anniversary of his death. "[13], The Guatemalan Baile de la Conquista ("Dance of the Conquest") is a traditional dance borrowing its structure from the Spanish Baile de los Moros ("Dance of the Moors"), which commemorates the expulsion of the Moors from Spain. Another version says he merely attacked the horse in an attempt to knock Alvarado down, having no prior illusion that both man and animal to be one and the same. Despite this, Tecun Uman's existence is not well documented, and it has proven to be difficult to separate the man from the legend. Gall 1967, pp. Died: 1541, in or near Guadalajara, New Spain (Mexico) Spouse (s): Francisca de la Cueva, Beatriz de la Cueva. This is all tied together by the genealogy of the K'iche' lords that is given near the end of the Popul Vuh and a section of the Título de Totonicapan, which both refer to the son of the Keeper of the Mat as "Tecum" at the time of Alvarado's arrival. (SPANISH), PALABRA VIRTUAL: Tecun Uman, Miguel Ángel Asturias, CULTURAL SURVIVAL: Guatemala - Everybody's Indian When the Occasion's Right, Sociedad de Geografía e Historia de Guatemala, Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Tecun_Uman&oldid=982233116, 16th-century indigenous people of the Americas, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2016, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 October 2020, at 22:28. Cousin, Spanish conquistador of the conquistadors Pedro and Jorge de Alvarado. Pedro de Portocarrero married Alvarado's daughter Leanor, probably in early 1536. At great cost, he assembled and equipped 13 ships and approximately 550 soldiers for the expedition. He died in Guatemala in 1541. Born: c. 1495 Birthplace: Badajoz, Castile, Spain Died: 4-Jul-1541 Location of death: Nochistlan Peak, Mexico Cause of death: Accident - Fall. The dance is known to have been performed throughout certain regions of colonial Latin America during a time when Catholic priests encouraged its use to aid them in the conversion of various native populations. The fleet was about to set sail in 1541 when Alvarado received a letter from Cristóbal de Oñate, pleading for help against hostile Indians who were besieging him at Nochistlán. [citation needed], A different version states Tecun Uman had an opportunity to kill Alvarado but ultimately failed and was slain by one of Alvarado's subordinates, a soldier known by the name of Argueta. Sharer and Traxler 2006, p. 764. This suggestion is based on the claim of Argueta's descendants that the lance they keep as an heirloom of their predecessor is stained with the blood of the K'iche' hero. Recinos 1952, 1986, p. 65. He is also memorialized in a poem by Miguel Ángel Asturias that bears his name. Gall 1967, p. 41. The death of Alvarado in the Codex Telleriano-Remensis (16th century). In AGI, Audiencia de Guatemala, Legajo 110, Probança hecha por el adelantado d. Pedro de Alvarado sobre las ropas de mantas que vendió en Peru (Santiago: 9 de octubre, 1536), he testified that he had sold Pizarro “ropas de manta” worth 2,000 ducats, and that Pizarro had never paid him. Gall 1967, pp. Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras (Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain, ca. Matthew 2012, pp. Born: c. 1495Birthplace: Badajoz, Castile, SpainDied: 4-Jul-1541Location of death: Nochistlan Peak, MexicoCause of death: Accident - Fall, Gender: MaleReligion: Roman CatholicRace or Ethnicity: WhiteOccupation: Military, Nationality: SpainExecutive summary: Spanish conqueror of Americas. [1] He participated in the conquest of Cuba, in Juan de Grijalva's exploration of the coasts of the Yucatán Peninsula and the Gulf of Mexico, and in the conquest of Mexico led by Hernán Cortés. Several other indigenous documents describe the arrival of Alvarado in what would become Guatemala, including the Título C'oyoi which describes the battle in terms similar to the modern legend. Tecun Uman quickly realized his error and turned for a second attack but Alvarado's thrust his spear into his opponent's heart. The Spanish colonization and the problems and resistance they faced, how they established a colony and joined it to the Vice Royalty of New Spain. Print Collection portrait file. Ignore the dates and places of birth and death of Diego de Alvarado, as well as almost all aspects of his biography. He was known as one of the best soldiers among the Conquistadores, as well as one of the most cruel to the native populations. He acted as Cortes's principal officer, and on the first occupation of the city of Mexico was left there in charge. Pedro de Alvarado was born in 1485 in the town of Badajoz, Extremadura. [13], Local folklore from the area around the former K'iche' capital of Q'umarkaj preserves the belief that he was buried at the small archaeological site of Atalaya, 600 metres (660 yd) from Q'umarkaj itself. Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras (Badajoz, Extremadura, Corona castellana, 1485 - Guadalajara, Virreinato de Nueva España, Imperio español, 4 de julio de 1541) fue un adelantado y conquistador español que participó en la conquista de Cuba, en la exploración por Juan de Grijalva del golfo de México y de las costas de Yucatán, y en la conquista del Imperio azteca dirigida por Hernán Cortés. Pedro de Alvarado has the distinction of … After Alvarado’s death, the new viceroy of Mexico, Pedro de Mendoza, seized Alvarado’s fleet. The sun glyph of Tonatiuh is joined to him. His body was buried at a local church in a village near Guadalajara, New Spain. Cause of Death: Accident Pedro de Alvarado was a Spanish conquistador credited with the conquest of much of Central America, including Guatemala and El Salvador. Pedro de Alvarado (Badajoz, c. 1495 - Guadalajara, Mexico, July 4, 1541), was one of the Spanish leaders in the discovery and conquest of America. Many writers have told the story of this tragic massacre in May 1520, which led directly to the death of the Mexica emperor Motecuhzoma and to the flight of the Spanish forces from Tenochtitlan during the ‘Sad Night’. Restall and Asselbergs 2007, p. 3. Pedro de Alvarado: Birthdate: estimated between 1574 and 1634: Death: Immediate Family: Husband of Juana Muñoz Father of Isabel Muñoz de Alvarado and Juana Muñoz de Alvarado. At the time of his death, he still held Sacatepéquez and Ostuncalco in encomienda. After the Spanish conquest of central Mexico, expeditions were sent further northward in Mesoamerica, to the … Alvarado accompanied his uncle on expeditions to the Americas, where he participated in the conquest of present-day Mexico, Guatemala and El Salvador. Do you know something we don't? Pedro de Al­varado y Contreras (Bada­joz, Ex­tremadura, Spain, ca. The sun glyph of Tonatiuh is joined to him. The prodigy of the successful conquest of Guatemala and the Maya region showed the might of the Spanish conquistadors under a ruthless battle leader, Pedro de Alvarado. [citation needed], A second explanation for the absence of greater detail in Alvarado's letter is that Tecun Uman actually did battle with one of Alvarado's subordinates, by the name of Argueta. From that day on, all male quetzals bear a scarlet breast and their song has not been heard since. As horses were not native to the Americas and peoples of Mesoamerica had no beasts of burden of their own, Tecun Uman assumed they were one being and killed Alvarado's horse. He passed away from the injuries on July 4, 1541. Alvaradowent to the region of Mexico to help the Spanish during the Mixton War. The K'iche' prince's nahual, filled with grief, landed on the fallen hero's chest, staining its breast feathers red with blood, and thereafter died. The first-born son of the Keeper of the Mat (the most powerful of the lords) was expected to prove himself by leading the K'iche' army and was given the title "nima rajpop achij", the same title given to Tecun Uman in the Título K'oyoi. Lovell 2005, p. 58. Cortés decided to despatch Pedro de Alvarado with 180 cavalry, 300 infantry, crossbows, muskets, 4 cannons, large amounts of ammunition and gunpowder, and thousands of allied Mexican warriors from Tlaxcala, Cholula and other cities in central Mexico;[4] they arrived in Soconusco in 1523. During his time there, he was accidentally trampled by a horse. [13] This theory is generally given little credence, in light of the observation that such documents as the Título K'oyoi appeared long before the first performances of the Baile de la Conquista. In 1536, Portocarrero accompanied Alvarado to Honduras and fought against the Chontal Maya of the Naco valley, where an uprising against the Spanish was underway. Don Pedro de Alvarado was assigned the road going from Tacuba straight to Tlatelolco; Captain don Hernando Cortes positioned himself in Coyoacan and guarded the road going from Coyoacan to Mexico. 1495, died Guadalajara, New Spain, 4 July 1541) was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala. Sharer and Traxler 2006, p. 763. 1485 or ca. According to the Kaqchikel annals, he was slain by Spanish conquistador Pedro de Alvarado while waging battle against the Spanish and their allies on the approach to Quetzaltenango on 12 February 1524. Guerra de Cuzcatlán.png 1,000 × 1,333; 2.61 MB Pedro de Alvarado (Tomás Povedano).jpg 2,432 × 3,302; 3.82 MB Pedro de alvarado telleriano remensis.jpg 346 × 279; 25 KB To fit the traditions of the Baile de los Moros, the role of the Moorish prince is replaced with that of Tecun Uman. Collection. [18] Tecun Uman's namesakes include a small town in the department of San Marcos on the Guatemala-Mexico border as well as countless hotels, restaurants, and Spanish schools throughout Guatemala. Díaz del Castillo 1632, 2005, p. 510. The letter was dated 11 April 1524 and was written during his stay at Q'umarkaj. It has therefore been suggested that the structure of the dance forced them to create a leader for the native armies, with Tecun Uman created specifically for that purpose. – February 20, 1524) was one of the last rulers of the K'iche' Maya people, in the Highlands of what is now Guatemala. Although suffering many injuries inflicted by defending K'iche' archers, the Spanish and their allies stormed the town and set up camp in the marketplace. On 12 February 1524 Alvarado's Mexican allies were ambushed in the pass and driven back by K'iche' warriors but the Spanish cavalry charge that followed was a shock for the K'iche', who had never before seen horses. Therefore, the word "uman" or "umam" simply means "grandson of" and is not part of Tecun's name at all. While he was gone, Pedro de Alvarado was left in charge of the Spanish’s mission in Tenochtitlan. The glyph to the right of his head represents his Nahuatl name, Tonatiuh ("Sun"). The cavalry scattered the K'iche' and the army crossed to the city of Xelaju (modern Quetzaltenango) only to find it deserted. [citation needed], In Guatemala, the dance recounts the early events of the conquest, centering on the confrontation between Tecun Uman and Pedro de Alvarado, which in turn serves as a symbol for the much larger conflict in which they were involved. Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras (Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain, ca. [19] In contrast to his popularity, he is at times rejected by Maya cultural activists who consider his status as a national hero a source of irony, considering the long history of mistreatment of Guatemala's native population. 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